Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture

Leading Early American Scholarship Since 1943


Unless otherwise indicated, all Institute books are published and distributed by The University of North Carolina Press. For ordering information, call 1.800.848.6224 or fax 1.800.272.6817. Please note that these books can be purchased only through UNC Press and not through the Institute.

Forced Founders

Indians, Debtors, Slaves & the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia

Woody Holton

Cloth ISBN 9780807825013

Paper ISBN 9780807847848

Copyright 1999 by the University of North Carolina Press

A Prize-Winning Book

  Fraunces Tavern Museum Book Award (2000)
  Merle Curti Award, Organization of American Historians (2000)

Visit the University of North Carolina Press web page for this book.

The Revolution in Virginia is at last explained.... Woody Holton shows most persuasively that armed Indians, rebellious enslaved workers, and democratically active smallholders were just as much active agents of the Revolution as Lord North and Patrick Henry.

--Rhys Isaac

In this tour de force, Woody Holton takes on a powerful image: (white) Virginians moving together into independence, united behind a patriot leader class. He shows instead how Virginians of all sorts confronted a shared crisis from their own points of view, how all of them influenced the outcome, and how living through that crisis changed them all.”

--Edward Countryman

[Holton’s] insights into the interplay among class, race, and ideology produce a complex and persuasive account of Virginia’s path to revolution.... A really well-written book, with vivid descriptive details and clearly presented analysis.”

--Carol Berkin

A challenging reconstruction of the trajectory which carried Virginia's gentlemen revolutionaries from resistance to independence. It will be appreciated by serious scholars of Virginia's revolutionary period; its lively style and wealth of anecdotes will make it an enjoyable read for anyone.

--Journal of American Studies

In a detailed, painstakingly researched book that examines the forces that fomented revolution in Colonial Virginia, Holton reveals a new view of Virginia history and a lesser-known side of himself.

--Richmond Times-Dispatch

The main strength of Holton's book is his effort to place the actions of the Virginia gentry within a more detailed local context and to see them as actors who were responding to the material concerns that governed their everyday lives.

--Law and History Review

A fascinating reinterpretation of the coming of the Revolution in Virginia. . . . Each vividly detailed and keenly argued section of the book demonstrates how a diverse collection of ordinary men and women pushed Virginia's leaders to declare independence. . . . Holton's powerful and innovative book should influence the study of the American Revolution for years to come.

--Virginia Magazine of History and Biography

[A] fine new book. . . . Where Holton moves beyond his predecessors is the large and colorful cast of characters that he includes in this story.

--James H. Merrell, H-Net

An important revisionist appraisal of the factors from 1763 to 1776 that propelled Virginians to support the Revolutionary movement and independence.


Holton does more than transfer a familiar neo-progressive narrative of the coming of the Revolution to Virginia. . . . [He] portrays the coming of the Revolution in Virginia as deeply bound up with competing social groups—planters, farmers, Indians, slaves, and British merchants—all of whom pursued their own interests. His social history of a revolution emerging out of these struggles rather than out of civic humanism or disputes surrounding the imperial constitution complements Rhys Isaac's interpretation of cultural conflict in revolutionary Virginia.

--American Historical Review

This book gives us a brisk and convincing analysis of a region—and revolutionary leaders—we thought we already knew. Given the threats they faced, we can only marvel that those uneasy leaders ever succeeded in such a desperate feat as making a revolution in such a dangerous and divided region. As Holton shows us, they were forced to.

--Journal of American History

This may be the most important book on the political culture of Revolutionary Virginia since Rhys Isaac's The Transformation of Virginia, 1740–1790. It is certainly the most provocative.

--Journal of Southern History