Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture

Leading Early American Scholarship Since 1943

William and Mary Quarterly

3d ser., 71, no. 3
October 2014

Interactive Digital Projects

“Here is my country”:
Too Né’s Map of Lewis and Clark in the Great Plains

Christopher Steinke

This interactive version of Too Né’s map provides a closer view of the map’s compositional elements. Too Né’s use of ink, pencil, and red paint (to represent the Kiowa country) suggests that he produced his map in at least two stages. He traced a few of the trails and three of the pictographs in pencil, including the stone figures and Medicine Rock. These are places that William Clark described in the first part of his journals, which reached Thomas Jefferson during the expedition. It is possible that Too Né added the pencil sketches after meeting with Jefferson or someone else with access to Clark’s journals.

Too Né’s map illustrates the geographical scope of the Arikara world in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He left out Indian nations that lived near the lower Missouri River. But he included people who lived far to the southwest of the Arikara villages. Through their relatives the Pawnees, who lived along the Platte River, the Arikaras gained access to southwestern trade partners. His map shows what the Arikaras would have seen when they traveled south from the Pawnee villages along the Santa Fe Trail, particularly Pike’s Peak, the “great mountain.”