Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture

Leading Early American Scholarship Since 1943


William and Mary Quarterly

Third Series, Volume LVI
January 1999

Digital Projects

“Growth and the Standard of Living in a Pioneer Economy”

By Frank D. Lewis and M. C. Urquhart.

1851

Improved Acres and Number of Animals : 1851
District Imp Acres Horses Oxen Milk Cows Steer
1 156604. 9564. 1551. 20012. 2111.
2 63079. 2690. 1608. 6382. 306.
3 211532. 8902. 5058. 21905. 5016.
4 203206. 6285. 6476. 17926. 2765.
5 459064. 16996. 8241. 36203. 12086.
6 419493. 13633. 8325. 30142. 12783.
7 600391. 21256. 10607. 40595. 13957.
8 602776. 17981. 14038. 39303. 17132.
9 218460. 8350. 3856. 15643. 5343.
10 623406. 20984. 24188. 53973. 24452.
11 145297. 7413. 4837. 14368. 7387.
 TOTAL 3703308. 134054. 88785. 296452. 103338.

Value of Farm Output–Dollars: 1851
District Wheat Livestock Products Field Crops Cost of Feed Net Income
1 185908. 605948. 477287. 440331. 828812.
2 59004. 174488. 192566. 140045. 286012.
3 202395. 623843. 537639. 479144. 884733.
4 214915. 542781. 554848. 417568. 894975.
5 319954. 1343092. 1100660. 893670. 1870036.
6 834367. 1155962. 858851. 777708. 2071472.
7 1494386. 1719381. 1351976. 1139107. 3426636.
8 1346554. 1521750. 1263652. 1061694. 3070262.
9 465189. 580685. 434056. 415795. 1064134.
10 1273119. 2122969. 1362872. 1489389. 3269571.
11  266996. 623585. 376221. 416797. 850004.
TOTAL 6662785. 11014482. 8510628. 7671245. 18516640

Farm Capital–Dollars: 1851
District Land Livestock Total
1 1194975. 879589. 2074563.
2  309988.  184309.  494297.
3  1646637.  894502.  2541138.
4  1951700.  949158.  2900857.
5  3981862.  1978827.  5960689.
6 3238012. 1393541. 4631553.
7 5018062. 2400361. 7418423.
8 5147675. 2151778. 7299453.
9 1975887. 1009088. 2984975.
10 4826175. 2539966. 7366141.
11 1255012. 888318. 2143329.
TOTAL 46291296. 20590576. 66881904.